来源：湖北中公考研 发布日期：2018-09-30 14:06:13
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that __1_ the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by _2_ factors. But Dr Simonton speculated that an inability to consider the big _3_ was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. _4_, he theorized that a judge _5_ of appearing too soft _6_crime might be more likely to send someone to prison __7_he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.
To __8__this idea, they turned their attention to the university-admissions process. In theory, the ____9___ of an applicant should not depend on the few others___10____ randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonton suspected the truth was____11____.
He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews _12_ by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had _13_ applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale _14_ numerous factors into consideration. The scores were _15_ used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the GMAT, a standardized exam which is _16_out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.
Dr Simonton found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one _17__ that, then the score for the next applicant would_18_ by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to_19_the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been _20__.
1. A grants B submits C transmits D delivers
2. A minor B external C crucial D objective
3. A issue B vision C picture D moment
4. A Above all B On average C In principle D For example
5. A fond B fearful C capable D thoughtless
6. A in B for C to D on
7. A if B until C though D unless
8. A. test B. emphasize C. share D. promote
9. A. decision B. quality C. status D. success
10. A. found B. studied C. chosen D. identified
11. A. otherwise B. defensible C. replaceable D. exceptional
12. A. inspired B. expressed C. conducted D. secured
13. A. assigned B. rated C. matched D. arranged
14. A. put B. got C. took D. gave
15. A. instead B. then C. ever D. rather
16. A. selected B. passed C. marked D. introduced
17. A below B after C above D before
18. A jump B float C fluctuate D drop
19. A achieve B undo C maintain D disregard
20. A necessary B possible C promising D helpful
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada ,Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.
This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decade or so ,advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara ,H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that –and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.
The victims of this revolution , of course ,are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.
Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing ,like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.
Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off.
Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.
21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her
[A] poor bargaining skill.
[B] insensitivity to fashion.
[C] obsession with high fashion.
[D] lack of imagination.
22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to
[A] combat unnecessary waste.
[B] shut out the feverish fashion world.
[C] resist the influence of advertisements.
[D] shop for their garments more frequently.
23. The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to
24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?
[A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.
[B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.
[C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.
[D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.
25. What is the subject of the text?
[A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle.
[B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth.
[C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry.
[D] Exposure of a mass-market secret.
An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioral” ads at those most likely to buy.
In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioral ads? Or should they have explicit permission?
In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.
On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.
It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioral ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.
Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favorably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, M
Microsoft's chief privacy officer, blogged:"we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple?
26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioral” ads help advertisers to:
[A] ease competition among themselves
[B] lower their operational costs
[C] avoid complaints from consumers
[D] provide better online services
27. “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3) refers to:
[A] online advertisers
[B] e-commerce conductors
[C] digital information analysis
[D] internet browser developers
28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default
[A] many cut the number of junk ads
[B] fails to affect the ad industry
[C] will not benefit consumers
[D] goes against human nature
29. which of the following is true according to Paragraph.6?
[A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose
[B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT
[C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers
[D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioral ads
30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of:
Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely - though by no means uniformly - glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all.
Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to.
But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so why shouldn't we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years . Look up Homo sapiens in the "Red List" of threatened species of the International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN) ,and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline."
So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organizations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has its flagship project a medical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence .
Perhaps willfully , it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future.
But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves.
This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come.
31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by
[A] our desire for lives of fulfillment
[B] our faith in science and technology
[C] our awareness of potential risks
[D] our belief in equal opportunity
32. The IUCN’s “Red List” suggest that human being are
[A] a sustained species
[B] a threaten to the environment
[C] the world’s dominant power
[D] a misplaced race
33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?
[A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies.
[B] Technology offers solutions to social problem.
[C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise.
[D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive.
34. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to
[A] explore our planet’s abundant resources
[B] adopt an optimistic view of the world
[C] draw on our experience from the past
[D] curb our ambition to reshape history
35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] Uncertainty about Our Future
[B] Evolution of the Human Species
[C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind
[D] Science, Technology and Humanity
On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona's immigration law Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the federal government and the states.
Anarizona. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona's controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigrations law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to "establish a uniform Rule of Anturalization" and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial. Arizona had attempted to fashion state police that ran to the existing federal ones.
Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court's liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun .On the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately "occupied the field " and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal's privileged powers
However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.
Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the alien and Sedition Acts.
The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion of federal executive power”. The White House argued the Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with.
Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status. It could. never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn't want to carry out Congress's immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.
36. Three provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they
[A] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers.
[B] disturbed the power balance between different states.
[C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.
[D] contradicted both the federal and state policies.
37. On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph4?
[A] Federal officers’ duty to withhold immigrants’information.
[B] States’ independence from federal immigration law.
[C] States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement.
[D] Congress’s intervention in immigration enforcement.
38. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts
[A] violated the Constitution.
[B] undermined the states’ interests.
[C] supported the federal statute.
[D] stood in favor of the states.
39. The White House claims that its power of enforcement
[A] Outweighs that held by the states.
[B] is dependent on the states’ support.
[C] is established by federal statutes.
[D] rarely goes against state laws.
40. What can be learned from the last paragraph?
[A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress.
[B] Justices intended to check the power of the Administration.
[C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress.
[D] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.
In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)
The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.
Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today’s global challenges including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(41)______Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger , from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers . Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.
(42)____This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction.
Today ,the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact.
Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004,(43)____
When social scientists do tackle practical issues ,their scope is often local: Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium for example .And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful.
The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding (44)____this is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate.
The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Union Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that system be changed: Horizon 2020,a new program to be enacted in 2014,would not have such a category ,This has resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science ; rather ,the complete opposite.(45)____That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems.
[A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social
scientists: one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly
specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented and publishing
elsewhere, such as policy briefs.
[B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010,about 1,600 of the
100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these
[C] the idea is to force social to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change food security, marine research and the bio-economy, clear, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.
[D] the solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones.
[E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior. All require behavioral change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy.
[F] Despite these factors , many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems . And in Europe , some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development .
[G] During the late 1990s , national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds-including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate -varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations , it is about 15%.
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; (46) Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.
One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47)A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the former becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.
Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49) most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see basophilic- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life-assuming uncanny representational forms.
46. yet when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges beyond that of decoration and creative expression.
47. A sacred place of peace, however, crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter which is a distinctly animal need.
48. The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless garden introduce from in to an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such
49 . Most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic
50. It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of the word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.
【解析】第一句提到“总体而言，当人们自己做决定时，并不擅长考虑背景信息。”第二句顺接上文，“乍一看这是一种优势”，that引起定语从句，这种优势使人们具有一种能力，即能够做出不受外界因素影响的不带偏见的决定。B选项submit “服从，提交”，不能与ability连用，C选项transmit “传输，发射”，也不能与ability 搭配，D选项deliver “传递”，同样不能与ability搭配。A, C, D无论从搭配上还是意思上都不合适。A选项grant本身具有赋予，授予的意思。故答案选A。
【解析】external外部因素和上文的background information同义复现，不考虑背景信息，不受外界因素影响。A选项minor 次要的，B选项objective 客观的，C选项crucial 残酷的，D选项external 外部的，故答案选D。
【解析】第三题本句but引起句意转折。“但是XX推测不考虑大局会导致决策者被日常接触的信息影响而带有偏见。”首先注意到空前面有定冠词the，指代上文信息，即不考虑背景信息、不考虑大环境。而大局，大环境的表达，此处选择picture是最贴切的。A选项 issue 问题，B选项vision 想象力，美景都不合适，故答案选C。
4.【答案】A For example
【解析】通读后面的句子，提到了法官与被告，这明显是生活当中的一个具体的实例，故答案选A。而B选项 on average “平均，通常”，出现的话，周围往往应该要出现数字。C选项in principle“大体上，原则上”，后面需要出现的是总结性的话语，D选项above all“首先”是用来列举条目，将BCD排除。
【解析】从句意上来看“例如，他们提出理论，认为法官不敢在罪行面前表现得太软弱，如果当天已经宣判五六名被告执行缓刑，那么他很有可能将下一个人送入监狱。A选项fond of 喜欢，B选项 fear of 惧怕，C选项capable of 有能力，D选项thoughtless of 考虑不周，故答案选B。
【解析】A if 表条件。B选项 until 表时间，往往跟not连用，直接排除。C选项though表让步，D选项unless 相当于 if...not 。通读空格所在的前后句子，得出这两句之间的逻辑关系是表示条件的。
【解析】空格后面有一个副词为randomly，随机地，既然是随机，那么选项B选项studied“研究过的”，C选项found “找到的” D选项identified“经鉴定的”就与randomly是相矛盾的，全部排除。
【解析】本题末尾one to five(从一到五)，前面又有一个on a scale(…的范围), A分配，D排列语义上说不通，再综合后面的factor(因素)，对比一下，只有B(划分等级)，整合起来，即划分成一到五个等级，合情合理C match看似与to搭配，但也不符合文意，故正确答案为B.
【解析】本题出在一个非限定性定语从句上，先行词为a standardized exam, 后半句是800分，考试和分数之间首选marked，选项B通过具有一定的干扰性，但注意主语是考试，所以正确选项为C。A为无关选项。
【解析】解本题需往下看，to…the effects of such a decrease, 由此可以判断接下来那个应聘者的分数是出现了下降，故正确选项C.
【解析】该句为不定式作主语，“(面试考官可能给)更低的分数”所带来的影响，可以推断，是消除或是抵消这种不利结果，应聘者需要在GMAT中多拿30分，A “达到”，C “保持”D“漠视”明显不符，故B为正确答案。
Section II Reading Comprehension
21.【答案】(insensitivity to fashion)
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干，首先定位到首段。由文章第一句后半句“…scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her.”意思是：“……批评她没有魅力的助理，因为助理认为高级时尚对她的生活影响不大”。可知criticize是对scolds的同义替换，B项中的“insensitivity to fashion”是“imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her.”的同义替换。所以B项为正确答案。
22.【答案】(shop for their garments more frequently)
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干，首先定位到第二段。由倒数第二句“these labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable, ……, and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks.”意思是“这些商标(畅销商标)促使有时尚意识的消费者将服装看成是用完就可以丢弃的，……，并且每周更新他们的衣橱。”D选项“shop for their garments more frequently”的意思是“更加频繁地购买服装”，正好是“renew their wardrobe every few weeks”的同义替换。
【解析】词义题。题干中需要猜测词义的单词出现在第二段的第一句“……the feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of ‘fast fashion’”。再结合选项可知，“indictment”是Elizabeth Cline对“快时尚”的一种态度。因此，解答此题的关键在于联系上下文语境，找到Elizabeth Cline对“快时尚”的态度。由第二段最后一句“By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.”，意思是“Cline说，通过以特别低的价格销售潮流物品，这些品牌破坏了潮流周期，动摇了这个长久以来习惯于季节周期的产业”。由“hijack”和“shaking”可知，Cline对“快时尚”应该是持否定态度的，所以选项A“accusation (谴责)”是正确选项。
24.【答案】(pricing is vital to environmental-friendly purchasing)
【解析】推理判断题。根据题干，可定位到最后一段。解题关键在于“Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to”，意思是“每个人都很虚荣，这很常见。但消费者付不起太多东西的时候，他们才会以更加可持续的方式去购物。”这句的关键词是“afford”和“shop more sustainably”，对应于D项中的“pricing”和“environmental-friendly purchasing”。A项对于本段的曲解。B项说的是“忽视环境的可持续发展”，与文中“several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment…”(一些时尚服饰公司已经做出努力减少对劳动力和环境)意思相悖。C项文中未提及。
25.【答案】(criticism of the fast-fashion industry)
26.【答案】(lower their operational costs)
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干，首先定位到首段。这段的大意是广告经费的一半都浪费掉了，但是通过“behavioral ads”可以追踪购买者的搜索习惯和评价，使得广告更有针对性，从而降低预算成本，也就是“this fraction can be much reduced”。 A、B和C选项文中并未提及，属于无中生有。
27.【答案】(internet browser developers)
【解析】词义句意题。the industry在语篇中是指代前面的出现内容，而前面出现的Microsoft Internet Explorer，Apple’s Safair 和Google’s Chrome都是D选项中中的“Internet browser developers”。 B和C选项文中并未提及，属于无中生有。A选项并非本段中谈论的核心。
28.【答案】(will not benefit consumers)
【解析】推理判断题。解题关键在于“… consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences”，也就是说，当浏览器开发者不能收集消费者网上购物倾向时，消费并不能从中受益。B、C和D选项文中并未提及，属于无中生有。
29.【答案】(DNT may not serve its intended purpose)
【解析】推理判断题。根据题干，可以定位到第六段。解题关键在于理解本段的行文逻辑，即“unable to tell whether…or whether, some may ignore…”。也就是说“由于不能辨别有些主体是真正反对行为广告，也不能辨别它们支持微软的做法，有些人甚至忽视DNT，继续先前的做法。”可此可见，B项符合题意。A、C和D选项内容在本段中均没有提及。
【解析】观点态度题。根据题干，可以定位到文章最后一段倒数第二句，Brendon Lynch的博客中评论道：“我们认为消费者应该有更大的自主权(或掌控权)”。解题关键在于最后一句“Could it be really that simple?”，从中可明显看出作者的怀疑态度。A项是“理解”，B项是“赞成”，D选项是“纵容”的意思。
31.【答案】 our faith in science and technology
【解析】事实细节题。根据出题的顺序性原则,可回文定位到文章第一段。该段落共计两句话。第一句总体交代了过去人们对未来的畅想总体是积极，正面的(were largely positive)。本题的正确答案就隐含在第二句话中。第二个句子实际上紧接着第一句话，交代了积极畅想的原因在于“科学和技术能治愈人类的一切疾病”，由此可确定本题的正确答案为B。选项A、D都错在因果倒置，“ lives of fulfillment”以及“opportunity for all”都是科学、技术带来的结果，并非原因。选项C属于无中生有，本段并没有提及任何与“ potential risks”相关内容，故排除。
32. 【答案】a sustained species
【解析】题干问的是“濒危物种名单(Red List)”意味着人类怎么样了?我们根据“IUCN”和“Red List”很容易定位到第三段。首段说的是几十年前至今人们对未来所持的态度，第二段出现转折，表明目前人们对于未来的危机意识加重。第三段再次转折，表示第二段中人们所持态度是错误的，即“人类未来不会有太大的生存危机”，并且在此段首句表明观点后，用各种信息去论证和支持这一观点。“Red List”很显然也是用来说明这个观点的，并且指出人类这个物种是widely distributed，adaptable，currently increasing，说的都是人类进化积极的一面。A选项说：濒危物种名单意味着人类是可以持久生存的物种，显然是正确选项。
33. 【答案】Our Immediate future is hard to conceive.
【解析】段落推断题。由本题的题干可以锁定本题的答案在文章的第五段。该段首句为段落中心句，“与思考眼前的未来相比，对如此之长的时间跨度进行思考似乎更为容易”，反过来思考也就是说，眼前的未来更难思考，符合D选项含义“我们眼前的未来很难去设想”。A选项“Arc 帮助缩小了未来学研究的范围”，该选项在文中出现在该段的最后一句话“这就是为什么我们可以发行Arc这样一个致力于研究近期未来的全新出版物”，和题目含义有很大出入，故排除。B选项“技术为社会问题提供了解决方法”，段中并未提到。C选项“对科幻小说的兴趣与日俱增”，该段中虽在第二句提到科幻小说家，但并未提及对科幻小说的兴趣，故排除。正确答案为D项“Our immediate future is hard to conceive”。
34.【答案】 draw on our experience from the past
【解析】段落细节题。由本题的题干可以锁定本题的答案在倒数第二自然段第二句，“As so often , the past holds the key to the future . ”此题就是考查对这句话的理解，“未来是掌握过去的关键。”由此确定正确答案为B。选项A 、C、D 与题干无关，在原文中无直接体现，也不能归纳得出，故排除。
35.【答案】The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind
【解析】全文的主旨题。考查考生对全文主题的把握。通观全文，我们可发现作者对未来是十分看好的，尤其在文章最后一段最后一句“But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come. ”作者直接借助这句话重申主题。由此，本题正确答案应既包含“未来”，也应能体现出作者对未来的态度。确定选项C为正确答案。选项A错在无中生有，全文当中对于未来，并无体现出对于其的不确定;本文讲的是人类对于未来的看法，而不是讲人类的进化史，因此B错误;D选项过于笼统，并未体现出作者的乐观态度，因此不对。
36.【答案】 overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.
【解析】事实细节题。principles that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial are noncontroversial.说明联邦法律高于州的法律是无可争辩的。答案选项they“overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.”---他们(亚利桑那州的法案)逾越了联邦法案。就是对文中这句话的反义改写。Overstep 为同义替换原文中的intrude, authority 同义替换了privileged powers.
37.【答案】States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement.州政府在移民法案实施中的合法地位。
【解析】第四段主要说明了，州警察依然可以核实移民的法律地位。国会设想joint federal-state immigration enforcement联合实施移民法案。同时，encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.国会鼓励州警察与联邦同事分享信息以及相互合作。其他选项的withhold，independence，intervention文中也没有提到。属于过度推断。
38.【答案】(Stood in favor of the states)
【解析】第五段最后一句：唯一的最主要的反对来自法官Antonino Scalia, 这个法官“defense”是支持州的权利的，“going back to”可追溯到Alien and Sedition Acts，证明这个法案是支持州的权利的。
39.【答案】(outweighs that held by the states.)
【解析】第六段The White House 认为亚利桑那州的法律跟白宫的法律实施权利冲突。In effect后面表达的是重点：如果这些州的法律跟它有冲突的话，白宫声明它有权利宣布其它州的法律无效。
40.【答案】(The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.)
41.【答案】G (These issues all have root causes in human behavior...)
【解析】此题可以通过上下文的衔接和代词指代来确定答案。空格前一句谈到“这种巨大的能源不是当今全球问题的主要影响因素，这些问题包括气候变化、安全、可持续发展和健康问题”，空后谈到“人类有必要的农业技术工具来消除饥饿”，空格处应该填入的选项可以连接前后句的内容，既包括谈及到全球问题，又谈及到解决问题的选项只有G项。该项首句提到的these issues即指代空前所提及的全球问题，以及该项第二句的climate change举例说明即是空前所列出的问题之一，并且该项提及解决气候变化的问题，很好的启示了下文。
42.【答案】C (Despite these factors...)
43.【答案】B (However, the numbers are still small...)
【解析】本题可以通过原词复现和逻辑关系来确定答案。空前一句讲到“ the number of papers including.....have increased rapidly ...”，紧接着在选项B中也出现了“the number”，属于原词复现。从逻辑关系的角度来看，选项B有一个明显的转折词“however”，这说明其表达的含义与空前信息相反，该选项提到“the numbers are still small”(数量非常小)，空前信息是“the number ... increased rapidly”(数量增长非常迅速)，两者在语意上构成了明显的转折关系。所以正确答案为B。
44.【答案】D (During the late 1990s...)
【解析】本题设在段落中间，可以通过段落一致性代词指代来确定答案。该段第一句提到：“The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding”,其表达的含义是：事情的问题不是可用资金的数目。那接下来要讲的内容一定和资金有关系。空后出现了代词“this is an adequate amount”其含义是：这个资金数目是足够的。那么this指代的内容一定和adequate amount相关，而选项D的题干是“national spending varied from 4% to 25%”，其表述的内容正是资金的总量。因此选项D为正确答案。
45.【答案】E (The idea is to force social to integrate...)
【解析】本题设空在段落中间，应瞻前顾后地依据连贯性原则确定答案。空前的信息是指欧盟提议取消了之前设定的专门投资支持社会科学家的专栏项目，其目的不是为了忽略社会科学家，而是完全相反，即文章中的“complete opposite”，根据语意衔接，接下来会说明欧盟这一做法的真正目的，并且这一目的对于社会科学家一定是积极的。选项E中的the idea指代空前出现的“it was proposed that...”，即欧盟的提案。除此之外，空后提到了collaborative endeavors，与选项E中的短语integrate with构成了同义替换。空后信息中的global problems与选项E中的health and demographic change, food security, ... and secure societies构成上下义的关系，这也是解题的一道线索，因此，正确答案为选项E。
Section III Translation
46. yet, when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.
47. A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need.
48. The gardens of the homeless, which are in effect homeless gardens, introduce form into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such.
49. Most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic.
50. It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of the word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.
Section IV Writing
Dear Mr. Wilson,
I am writing on behalf of the Student’ Union to invite you to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest. It will be held in ROOM304, the North Building next Friday.
This contest aims at improving our abilities in practical English. We know that you are admired by all the students. We would be grateful if you could be the judge for this contest. The participants are mainly the seniors and the theme is concerning the importance of environmental protection.
It’s our greatest pleasure that you can present yourself in this great event. We are looking forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience.
Emerging from the cartoon is an eye-catching scene that college graduates are at a turning point on the way to choose their future destination. When stepping out of the campus, a variety of choices, such as finding a job, going further education or abroad, and doing pioneering work, lie in front of these young people.
The implication echoed by this drawing remind us the great importance of a philosophic topic in our daily life：a successful life is directly related to the choice made by oneself. Nevertheless, we cherish a belief that we cannot tell whether the selection is good or not, and as long as we adhere to our decision success will be realized step by step. Making choice is essential to help determine the direction of our way, and persistence functions as an indispensable driving force to keep up our spirit and to assist us to fulfill our study and work. Only those who are hard-working and brave enough to encounter obstacles of all sorts are most likely to reach the summit of success.
Positive mental guidance should be popularized among the young people to help them make wise decision in their life. Besides, the youngster should be educated to realize the reality. Only in this way, can they make the right choice and shoulder the real success.
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