来源：湖北中公考研 发布日期：2018-09-30 12:08:13
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Thinner isn't always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.
Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.
While such numerical standards seem ___9___, they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, ___10___ others with a low BMI may be in poor___11___.For example, many collegiate and professional football players ___12___ as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a ___13___ BMI.
Today we have a(an) ___14___ to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweight are sometimes___15___ in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes ___16___ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success. Teachers, employers, and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. ___17___ very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.
Negative attitudes toward obesity, ___18___ in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity ___19___. My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities.Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign__20___ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.
1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured
2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome
3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore
4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example
5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern
6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of
7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies
8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part
9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward
10. [A] so [B] while [C] since [D] unless
11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste
12. [A] start [B] quality [C] retire [D] stay
13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant
14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency
15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored
16. [A] compared [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated
17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only
18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded
19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies
20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.
These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
Readers of "Happy Money" are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors' policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.
21. According to Dumn and Norton, which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?
[A]A big house [B]A special tour [C]A stylish car [D]A rich meal
22. The author's attitude toward Americans' watching TV is________.
[A]critical [B]supportive [C]sympathetic [D]ambiguous
23. Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that_______.
[A]consumers are sometimes irrational
[B]popularity usually comes after quality
[C]marketing tricks are after effective
[D]rarity generally increases pleasure
24. According to the last paragraph, Happy Money_______.
[A]has left much room for readers'criticism
[B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
[C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us
[D]may give its readers a sense of achievement
25. This text mainly discusses how to______.
[A]balance feeling good and spending money
[B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries
[C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent
[D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries
An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you're more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the "above average effect", or "illusory superiority", and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others-all obviously statistical impossibilities.
We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we're hot stuff.
Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves' from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is "an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation". If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. "I don't think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion", says Epley. "It's a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves'. If you are depressed, you won't be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley 's study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don't even recognize the person in the picture as themselves, Face book therefore ,is a self-enhancer's paradise, where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it's not that people's profiles are dishonest, says Catalina toma of Wiscon-Madison university ,"but they portray an idealized version of themselves.
26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.
[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high
[B] illusory superiority is baseless effect
[C] our need for leadership is unnatural
[D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective
27. Visual recognition is believed to be people's______.
[A] rapid watching
[B] conscious choice
[C] intuitive response
[D] automatic self-defence
28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______.
[A] underestimate their insecurities
[B] believe in their attractiveness
[C] cover up their depressions
[D] oversimplify their illusions
29. The word "Viscerally"(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.
30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer's paradise because people can _____.
[A]present their dishonest profiles
[B]define their traditional life styles
[C]share their intellectual pursuits
[D]withhold their unflattering sides
When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.
Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.
Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes.
The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.
There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%.
Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues.
But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing ?4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition's spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate.
36. The author believes that the housing sector__
[A] has attracted much attention
[B] involves certain political factors
[C] shoulders too much responsibility
[D] has lost its real value in economy
37. It can be learned that affordable housing has__
[A] increased its home supply
[B] offered spending opportunities
[C] suffered government biases
[D] disappointed the government
38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may_______.
[A] allow greater government debt for housing
[B] stop local authorities from building homes
[C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt
[D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast
39. It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______.
[A]lower the costs of registered providers
[B]lessen the impact of government interference
[C]contribute to funding new developments
[D]relieve the ministers of responsibilities
40. The author believes that after 2015,the government may______.
[A]implement more policies to support housing
[B]review the need for large-scale public grants
[C]renew the affordable housing grants programme
[D]stop generous funding to the housing sector
Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)
Uncommon Ground - Land Art in Britain
The term Land Art brings to mind epic interventions in the land such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty, 6,500 tons of basalt, earth and salt projecting into Utah's Great Salt Lake, or Roden Crater, an extinct volcano in Arizona, which James Turrell has been transforming into an immense naked-eye observatory since 1979.
Richard Long's A Line Made By Walking, however, involved nothing more strenuous than a 20-minute train ride from Waterloo. Having got off somewhere in suburbia, the artist walked backwards and forwards over a piece of grass until the squashed turf formed a line - a kind of drawing on the land.
Emerging in the late Sixties and reaching a peak in the Seventies, Land Art was one of a range of new forms, including Body Art, Performance Art, Action Art and Installation Art, which pushed art beyond the traditional confines of the studio and gallery. Rather than portraying landscape, land artists used the physical substance of the land itself as their medium.
The message of this survey of British land art - the most comprehensive to date - is that the British variant, typified by Long's piece, was not only more domestically scaled, but a lot quirkier than its American counterpart. Indeed, while you might assume that an exhibition of Land Art would consist only of records of works rather than the works themselves, Long's photograph of his work is the work. Since his "action" is in the past the photograph is its sole embodiment.
That might seem rather an obscure point, but it sets the tone for an exhibition that contains a lot of black-and-white photographs and relatively few natural objects.
Long is Britain's best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the form. The Boyle Family, on the other hand, stand for its dirty, urban aspect. Comprising artists Mark Boyle and Joan Hills and their children, they recreated random sections of the British landscape on gallery walls. Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterises most of our experience of the landscape most of the time.
Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard's very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a pretty girl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.
Generally however British land artists preferred to get away from towns, gravitating towards landscapes that are traditionally considered beautiful such as the Lake District or the Wiltshire Downs. While it probably wasn't apparent at the time, much of this work is permeated by a spirit of romantic escapism that the likes of Wordsworth would have readily understood. Derek Jarman's yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.
In the case of Hamish Fulton, you can't help feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his love of walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath. British Land Art as shown in this well selected, but relatively modestly scaled exhibition wasn't about imposing on the landscape, more a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art created passing through. It had its origins in the great outdoors, but the results were as gallery-bound as the paintings of Turner and Constable.
[A] originates from a long walk that the artist took
41. Stone Circle [B] illustrates a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art
42. Olaf Street Study [C] reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition.
43. Across the Park [D] represents the elegance of the British land art
44. Towards Avebury [E] depicts the ordinary side of the British land art
45. Seven days [F] embodies a romantic escape into the Scottish outdoors
[G] contains images from different parts of the same photograph.
Section III Translation
Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that's perpetually half fall. But that's exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn't recommend. "Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality." says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar, realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.
Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn't. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn't matter.
Section IV Writing
47. Directions: Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him to email to
1)tell him about your living habits, and
2)ask for advice about living there.
You should write about 100 words on answer sheet.
Do not use your own name.
48. Directions: Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
1. interpret the chart, and
2. give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
1. [B] concluded
2. [A ]protective
3. [[C] Likewise
4. [A] indicator
5. [D] concern
6. [A]in terms of
7. [C] equals
8. [C] in turn
9. [D] straightforward
10. [B] while
12. [B] qualify
13. [C] normal
14. [D] tendency
15. [B] pictured
16. [D] associated
18. [D] grounded
21.[B] A special tour
23.[D] rarity generally increases pleasure
24.[B] may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
25.[C] obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent
26. [A ]our self-ratings are unrealistically high
27. [C] intuitive response
28. [B]believe in their attractiveness
29. [A] instinctively
30. [D] withhold their unflattering sides
36. [B]involves certain political factors
37. [C]suffered government biases
38. [A] allow greater government debt for housing
39. [C] contribute to funding new developments
40. [D] stop generous funding to the housing sector
41 .[D] represents the elegance of the British land art
42 .[E] depicts the ordinary side of the British land art
43 .[G] contains images from different parts of the same photograph
44 .[C] reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition
45 . [A] originates from a long walk that the artist took
Most people would define optimism as being endlessly happy, with a glass that's perpetually half full. 大多数人将乐观定义为永远快乐，总觉得杯子里的水还有一半。But that's exactly the kind of false cheerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn't recommend. 但积极心理学家并不提倡这种虚假的快乐。"Healthy optimism means being in touch with reality," says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor."健康的乐观是与现实联系在一起的，"哈佛大学教授泰·本-沙哈说道。According to Ben-Shahar, realistic optimists are those who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.根据他的观点，现实的乐观主义者是去积极实现事情的圆满，而不是坐等事情会自己圆满。
Ben-Shahar uses three optimistic exercises. 本-沙哈提出了乐观训练的三个阶段。When he feels down-say, after giving a bad lecture---he grants himself permission to be human.当他心情低落时--比如，一个糟糕的演讲之后--他宽慰自己这是人之常情。He reminds himself that not every lecture can be a Nobel winner, some will be less effective than others. 他提醒自己不是每一次演讲都要求诺贝尔标准，有些演讲的效果会不如其他。Next is reconstruction. 下一个阶段是重塑。He analyzes the weak lecture, learning lessons for the future about what works and what doesn't. 他会分析这次失败的演讲，哪些地方可取，哪些不可取，为将来的演讲积累经验。Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the grand scheme of life, one lecture really doesn't matter.最后一个阶段是前瞻，我们要认识到在生命的宏伟蓝图中，一次演讲根本算不上什么。
I'm glad to hear from you. How have you been these days? The purpose of this email is to tell you about my living habits.
Firstly, I never drink or smoke. Neither do I stay up late. Instead, I keep a balanced diet and go to bed before 11 o'clock at night, because I believe burning the midnight oil is harmful to health. Secondly, I'd like to keep my things clean. It is obvious that living in a messy environment results in a chaotic life.
Finally, could you please offer me some proposals as regards living in your city? I'm sure that we can get along well with each other, and our university life would be one of the best times in life. (123 words)
The column chart above clearly reflects the changes in the statistics between urban and rural population in China during the past two decades. For urban dwellers, there was a noticeable jump of 360 million from 300 million to 66 million between 1990 and 2010. By contrast, a remarkable decline occurred in the number of rural population by 160 million from 820 million to 660 million during the same period.
At least three primary contributors account for such changes. First and foremost, there is a much nicer choice of options available in cities and towns, across the broad. There are more jobs to choose from, different kinds of companies and types of work. In addition, big cities offer much more excitement and stimulation, partly as a result of all the various options available in so many areas. More importantly, people prefer to live in cities and towns for the convenience of the transportation system. It would have a well developed bus, subway, highway and airport transportation network.
Generally speaking, people in expanding numbers would prefer to live in cities and towns which offer a rich variety of many options, whether it be for jobs, leisure, cultural or intellectual activities. At the same time, people like the energy and stimulation of a big city environment and the convenience of a well-developed transportation system. (221 words)
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